Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Vancouver referencing Uniskills: Reference list examples

Vancouver referencing

Reference list examples

Author variations

Author variations apply to all reference types (books, journal articles, reports etc.). Author surnames (family names) are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stop between the initials, e.g. Smith JA. Commas are used to separate each author's name, e.g. Khan FM, Gibbons JP.
 

Title capitalisation

Titles should appear in lower case except for the first letter of the first word, abbreviations, proper names, and names of clinical trials or study groups, e.g. 


Krieger J, Song L, Philby M. Community health worker home visits for adults with uncontrolled asthma: the HomeBASE Trial randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(1):109-117. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6353


Titles of whole works such as journals and books, should appear in headline style capitalisation, where all significant words start with a capital letter.
 

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs)

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are used to uniquely identify objects in the digital environment, for example a journal article, ebook, or data set. The DOI provides a persistent link to the object. In the Vancouver style, DOIs are presented as metadata, not as hyperlinks, e.g. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6353

Journal and news articles

Journal titles are abbreviated in the Vancouver style, e.g. New England Journal of Medicine appears as N Engl J Med in the reference list entry. A list of abbreviations is available through PubMed at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/. Click on Journals (under Explore) and enter the full journal title to view its abbreviation. Alternative sources of journal title abbreviations are listed in appendix B of Citing Medicine.
 

Books

Health resources

Websites and social media

Reports and legislation