In the Vancouver style, a consecutive number is allocated to each reference as it is cited for the first time in the text of the assignment (i.e. the first citation that appears in-text is number one, the next unique citation that appears in-text is number 2 and so on). This number becomes the unique identifier of that source and if the source is cited again in-text, the same number is repeated. Vancouver uses superscript numbers in-text, e.g. 1-4,10,12
Multiple citations can be inserted at a single point in-text, separated by a comma with no spaces in between, e.g. This issue has been faced by many in the industry.1,2,4,7
When there are three or more consecutive citations, join the first and last in the series with a hyphen, e.g. The condition has been reported in a number of studies.4-7
If citing different pages from a single source at different places in the text, page numbers can be included in the citation and the source listed once in the reference list. Place the page number(s) in brackets directly following the numbered citation. Use p for a single page or pp for multiple pages, e.g. …pain response should be considered.8(p83),9,12(pp3,5)
Please check with your tutor if they require you to provide page numbers for direct quotes.
If mentioning authors in text, only surnames (family names) are used. For a reference with two authors include both surnames, e.g. Avery and Williams1 highlight the importance of this method. For references with three or more authors, list the first author then et al (meaning and others), e.g. Azar et al2 reported on this association.
In Australia falls are one of the main causes of injury-related hospitalisations, with the elderly representing the majority of cases.1 Accidental falls in older persons can have a detrimental effect on their mental wellbeing.2,3 “The psychological aspects, especially fear of falling, loss of confidence and increased anxiety, can be more disabling than the physical ones”.3 It is therefore important that effective programs are implemented to reduce the incidence of falls.4-6