In the Vancouver style, a consecutive number is allocated to each reference as it is cited for the first time in the text of the assignment (i.e. the first citation that appears in-text is number one, the next unique citation that appears is number two and so on). This number becomes the unique identifier of that source and if the source is cited again, the same number is repeated. Vancouver uses superscript numbers or standard numbers in brackets, e.g. 1-4, 10, 12 or (1-4, 10, 12). The reference list is ordered numerically.
Citations should be included:
After the author's name:
Johnson1 explains... OR Johnson (1) explains...
To the right of commas and full stops:
...is a widely accepted theory.3 OR ...is a widely accepted theory.(3)
To the left of colons and semi-colons:
...lists the following6: motivation... OR ...lists the following(6): motivation...
Multiple sources can be inserted at a single point separated by a comma:
...is an issue faced by many in the industry.1,3,4 OR ...is an issue faced by many in the industry.(1,3,4)
Three or more consecutive citations are joined with a hyphen:
This condition has been reported in a number of studies.5-8
Page numbers are not usually required for in-text citations. However, if citing different pages from a single source at different places in the text, page numbers can be added to the citations to aid retrieval. Page numbers can also be added for direct quotations if necessary (please check with your Lecturer).
...pain response should be considered.9(p83) OR ...pain response should be considered.(9 p83)
If mentioning authors in text, only surnames (family names) are used. For a reference with two authors include both surnames, e.g. Avery and Williams1 highlight the importance of this method. For references with three or more authors, list the first author then et al (meaning and others), e.g. Azar et al2 reported on this association.
In Australia, falls are one of the main causes of injury-related hospitalisations, with the elderly representing the majority of cases.1 Accidental falls in older persons can have a detrimental effect on their mental wellbeing.2,3 "The psychological aspects, especially fear of falling, loss of confidence and increased anxiety, can be more disabling than the physical ones”.3 It is important that effective programs are implemented to reduce the incidence of falls.4-6