Skip to main content

EndNote X7.7: Working with referencing styles

Referencing software

Page contents

This page tells you how to:



  • edit existing styles
  • add special characters
  • add fields to reference types 

Editing existing styles

To edit your chosen style in EndNote, go to the Edit menu, choose Output Styles and "Edit APA 6th" (or whichever style you want to edit).

Look at the menu on the left hand side of the screen. The Citations menu shows the options for the presentation of your in-text citations and the Bibliography menu shows the options for your bibliography references.

Select Citations/Templates to see the template for in-text citations. Selecting Bibliography/Templates will show you the bibliography templates for different reference types. Note that fields such as author, year, title etc. are shown together with the punctuation and other text that forms a reference in a bibliography. To include Field Substitutions, select Bibliography/Field Substitutions and tick the appropriate boxes. For example, the URL field can be inserted for records without a DOI.

Adding special characters

There are special characters which allow EndNote to control how the records appear in the bibliography. All of these characters can be added using the Insert Field menu at the right hand side. Before selecting a special character from this menu ensure you place your cursor in the template where you want it to appear.

1. Singular/Plural ^ caret symbol - used if there is different text for singular and plural forms e.g. (Ed.),^(Eds.) 

2. Link adjacent text ◊- this is a non-breaking space and is shown as a small grey diamond in the template - this is used to link adjacent text to a field, so that this text does not appear if the field is empty. For example if there is no issue, you do not want the text "no." appearing on your record.

3. Forced separation | pipe symbol - used to separate punctuation from adjacent fields. For example you may want a full stop at the end no matter what fields are empty.

4. Field names as literal text ` back apostrophe symbol (on your keyboard) - this is used if you want to use text in your record which has already been used as a field name. For example, if you wanted to use the word "year" as well as the field year without using the back apostrophe's you would get 2001 2001,  but if you insert `year`, your record will appear as Year 2001.

Adding fields to reference types

If you want to add an extra field to your reference type, open the Edit menu (Mac usersEndNote X7 menu) and choose Preferences. Click on Reference Types, then Modify Reference Types. From the drop-down menu choose the reference type. The right column can be altered. Choose a blank Custom field and enter the name of your new field. Click OK and OK again. (Mac users: Click on Save and then on the red x).

If you want the information in this new field to appear in your chosen referencing style, then you must edit your style.