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Education: APA 6th


When you write an assignment or essay, it is very important to acknowledge the source of anyone else's ideas that you have used or mentioned in your work.

You need to reference the direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as the ideas and theories that you use.

The reader is then able to find the original source of the information to check it or follow up a point.

There are different 'styles' of referencing. Find style guides and examples for APA 6th ed, Chicago Author-Date, and Vancouver in our Referencing Guide

Referencing is an important aspect of research!

Australian University staff and students are required to acknowledge all sources of information used in their research paper. This is important for a number of reasons:

  • It is acknowledgement for the use of other people's ideas
  • Enables the reader to locate the sources referred to in your paper
  • Supports and strengthens your argument
  • Demonstrates academic integrity - and helps avoid plagiarism.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are special strings of alphanumeric characters that form a persistent link to individual publications. They are issued at the time of publication, much like an ISBN or ISSN. DOIs are assigned to various publications, including journal articles, books and chapters, conference papers, and so on.

Why use a DOI?                                                                                

  • DOIs provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles/journal articles.
  • Some referencing styles (eg APA 6th ed.) require that you include DOIs when referencing online journal articles. This guarantees that others will be able to access your listed references, as DOIs offer persistence and permanence that standard URLs (links) do not.

To check if DOIs are used with your required referencing style, see our Referencing Style guides.

Image credit: DOI on blog

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Please note

It is very important that you check your department or school's assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines we provide. All referencing queries should be addressed to the appropriate lecturer or supervisor. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school's requirements.

APA 6th referencing

For instructions and examples on how to reference using APA 6th, see Curtin's APA 6th Referencing Guide

Students are encouraged to use Curtin's Referencing LibGuide although there is more extensive information in the print Manual (see below)

Other useful APA guides

The resources below are recommended guides to these styles.